Protecting against tomorrow's adversaries - Post-Quantum Cryptography
Quantum Computers could endanger almost all cryptosystems that are in use today. While it's unclear if large scale Quantum Computers will ever be built, some researchers see them happening within the next 10 or 15 years.
Post-Quantum Cryptography is trying to investigate new cryptographic mechanisms that can protect communication from qunatum computer attacks. While some algorithms exist that can provide this protection they suffer from either being impractical or being too new to be trustworthy. However the field is getting a lot of attention lately and Google has started using post quantum algorithms for some TLS connections.